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ثرندایک

نوشته شده توسط:ارسلان مرتضی
یکشنبه 31 اردیبهشت 1391-09:48 ب.ظ

کاربرد نظریه های یادگیری ثرندایک در آموزش و پرورش

        نظریه ی ثرندایک با استفاده از آزمایش بر روی حیوانات شکل گرفت . گرچه ثورندایک پژوهشهای خود را به جانوران محدود نساخته است ،اما نظریه محرک و پاسخ او حاصل نخستین آزمایشهای او با جانوران است و مواردی همچون الف : یادگیرنده باید موجودی فعال باشد و    ب: یادگیری پیوندی است که میان محرک و پاسخ ایجاد می شود (پارسا،1380،ص36).

      نظریه ی ثرندایک ترکیبی است از تداعی گرایی ، داروین گرایی و روشهای علمی (سیف ،1390،ص99).

      مواردی که ثرندایک بر آنها تاکید می کند قبل از او صاحب نظران دیگری همچون هربارت و کمینوس بیان کرده اند ، اما نظریه ی یادگیری ثرندایک آثار عمیق و گسترده ای بر روند تدریس و یادگیری گذاشته به در خلای مطالب به آنها اشاره خواهد شد .

      مفاهیم نظری عمده دیدگاه  ثرندایک متاثر از موضوعات همچون  (پیوند گرایی ، گزینش و پیوند ) می باشد که توضیح مختصر آنها به شرح زیر است . پیوند گرایی : به رابطه عصبی بین محرک و پاسخ اشاره می کند . گزینش و پیوند : بریادگیری از راه کوشش و خطا  بنا نهاده شده است  (سیف ، 1390،ص99).

      ثرندایک سه قانون اصلی را در مورد یادگیری بیان می نماید 1. قانون آمادگی : وجود زمینه و آمادگی قبلی در فراگیر یا ارگانیسم به منظور یادگیری رضایت بخش 2.قانون تمرین : تکرار و تمرین در یادگیری و تداوم آن اثر دارد  3. قانون تاثیر : رضایت ازعکس العمل توسط فرد موجب تقویت عکس العمل همراه با عدم رضایت موجب کاهش اثر و یا ارتباط خواهد شد (یارمحمدیان ،1390،ص64).

    منظور از تعلق پذیری این است که وقتی تداعی بین محرک و پاسخ به گونه ایی باشد که آن ها متعلق به یکدیگر باشند، تداعی بهتر از زمانی صورت می گیرد که تعلق پذیری وجود نداشته باشد (زارع،1389،ص42).

 

       ذکر و توضیح مختصر قوانین و نکته های اساسی دیدگاه ثرندایک  به جهت مستند کردن توضیحات در باره موارد هفت گانه ذیل لازم و ضروری به نظر می رسید هدف به درازا کشیده شدن بحث نیست .

هدف:

     هدف آموزشی باید در حد توانایی پاسخدهی یادگیرنده باشند و باید به واحد های قابل کنترل تقسیم شوند به گونه ای که وقتی یادگیرنده پاسخ مقتضی را می دهد معلم بتواند "وضع خشنودکننده ای " را برای او تدارک ببیند  (سیف ،1390،ص114).



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